TOUGH, a parish, in the district of Alford, county of Aberdeen, 5 miles (S. E. by E.) from Alford; containing 762 inhabitants. This place is situated partly in the northern and western portions of the Corrennie range, or "Red hill," and partly in the vale of the river Don, occupying that extension of it called the Vale of Alford, though in no part does it reach to the bank of the river. Its figure is altogether irregular; its length from south-west to north-east is between five and six miles, and its breadth varies from half a mile to upwards of three miles, the whole comprising, exclusively of a large tract of hills bounding the parish on the south, 5650 acres, of which 2300 are in tillage, 1100 in plantations, and 2250 uncultivated. The rugged and unequal nature of the surface, which consists of valleys and mountains, and its general elevation of 420 feet above the level of the sea, produce much diversity in the scenery, climate, and soil; the district is exposed to many vicissitudes of weather, and in the early part of the winter the low grounds, which are damp and marshy, often suffer from sharp frosts. The Corrennie hill, rising to the height of 1578 feet, forms a protection for the subjacent vales, and affords commanding views from its summit of all the local scenery, which, however, though well watered with rivulets and good springs, is destitute of any considerable stream. The prevailing soil is a light reddish mould, shallow, and rather sharp, but of good quality; the best lands are those stretched along the bases, or on the lower acclivities, of the hills. Oats and bear are the grain here raised; and the green crops consist principally of turnips and potatoes, of which the former are by far the most extensively cultivated, the latter being grown only for domestic consumption. The grounds receive large supplies of bonemanure, which is often mixed with dung. The cattle here are a very superior stock, being in general the old Aberdeenshire, crossed with the West Highland and other sorts, and not unfrequently with the Teeswater; the sheep are mostly the black-faced, but are comparatively few in number, and kept by the farmers who dwell near the hill. About 1000 head of cattle are usually kept on the pastures, the farmers making the fattening of them a leading object; they are fed during the winter on oat-straw and turnips, and sent to market when about three years old. The annual average value of the agricultural produce is £7400, of which £4000 are returned for grain alone. The rotation system is followed, and various other improvements have been introduced, among which the most important are, the adoption of the new plough, the cultivation of turnips, the growth of different grasses, the free use of lime for manure, and the cleaning and draining of the grounds. These have placed the husbandry of the parish upon an entirely new and superior footing; and in addition to the direct cultivation of the soil, the subsidiary aids to good farming have met with much attention, especially the erection of threshing-mills, of which there are about twenty, mostly turned by water, the construction of stone dykes for fences, and the building of good farm houses and offices.
   The predominant rock is red granite, and mica-slate interlaid with granitic veins; magnesian limestone is found, and also boulders of blue granite in various places, with red slate, clay-stone, and very beautiful felspar-porphyry supplying excellent stones for building. The red granite is frequently dug out of beds, and used for repairing roads. A clay-stone and porphyry-dyke of a reddish hue, and of very compact texture, traverses the eastern side of the parish, and continues for several miles. The plantations, in the midst of the most luxuriant of which is inclosed the garden of Tonley, an exquisitely beautiful spot in a picturesque dell, cover most of the higher grounds, and, among many varieties, contain Scotch fir, larch, and spruce, all of large bulk and height, and yielding excellent timber. Tonley, the seat of the late eminent antiquary, James Byres, Esq., is a handsome modern mansion erected on the site of a former house, part of which is included in it; and is surrounded by beautifully laid-out grounds, ornamented with many fine old trees. The mansion of Whitehouse, also in the midst of flourishing plantations, occupies the south-west portion of a hill, and commands fine prospects of the fertile vale of Alford, and the adjacent mountains. The turnpike-road from Aberdeen to Strathdon passes through the northern quarter, and that from the same place to Tarland touches on the south; there is also a good road to Kintore, about thirteen miles distant. Thither the produce of Tough is occasionally sent, being conveyed thence by canal to Aberdeen; but the direct route to Aberdeen by the road is generally preferred. Many black-cattle from this place are shipped for the London market; and butter, cheese, and large quantities of eggs, are also taken for sale to Aberdeen, the last amounting to about 6000 dozens yearly. About 3000 pairs of good worsted stockings, also, are annually knitted by females here, for a manufacturing establishment at the same place. The rateable annual value of the parish is £2450.
   The parish is ecclesiastically in the presbytery of Alford, synod of Aberdeen, and in the patronage of Sir John Forbes, Bart. The minister's stipend is £159, of which above a fifth is paid by the exchequer; with a manse, and a glebe of six acres valued at £7. 10. per annum. The church, containing 550 sittings, is a handsome edifice, built in 1838, and conveniently situated for the larger part of the people. By a decree of the Court of Teinds within the present century, this parish was annexed to that of Keig; and on account of the saving thus made of £57. 17. paid to the two ministers previously, from the exchequer, under the Small-stipend act, the government agreed to advance £1200 towards the erection of a bridge at Keig, over the river Don. This annexation, however, after having been effected upon the death of one of the incumbents, in 1832, according to the decree, was found so inconvenient and unsatisfactory that it was dissolved, and the parishes now remain in their former state. The parochial school affords instruction in the usual branches; the master has a salary of £25. 13. 4., a house, an allowance from the Dick bequest, and £5 fees. A school, also, for girls, under the direction of the Kirk Session, receives an auxiliary sum annually from the Society for Propagating Christian Knowledge. The interest of £200, left by the late Peter Mc Combie, is annually distributed among the poor. There is a subscription library containing between 400 and 500 volumes. Many Druidical circles are to be seen; the largest is called the Auld Kirk of Tough, and is surrounded by tumuli. On the hill above Whitehouse is a monumental stone more than twelve feet high, called Luath's stone, from a son of Macbeth, who, according to tradition, in his flight from Lumphanan, where his father had been slain, fell here. Two stone collars, of the shape of those used for horses, but only of a size to fit a pony, are preserved as curiosities, among many others, at the mansion-house of Tonley, the late proprietor of which, Mr. Byres, who died here at an advanced age, was celebrated for his profound acquaintance with architectural antiquities and the fine arts, and delivered public lectures on these subjects at Rome, where he long resided.

A Topographical dictionary of Scotland. . 1856.

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  • tough´ly — tough «tuhf», adjective, adverb, noun, verb. –adjective. 1. bending without breaking: »Leather is tough; cardboard is not. 2. hard to cut, tear, or chew: »The steak was so tough, I couldn t eat it. 3. stiff; sticky: »tough clay …   Useful english dictionary

  • Tough — Tough, a. [Compar. {Tougher}; superl. {Toughest}.] [OE. tough, AS. t[=o]h, akin to D. taai, LG. taa, tage, tau, OHG. z[=a]hi, G. z[aum]he, and also to AS. getenge near to, close to, oppressive, OS. bitengi.] 1. Having the quality of flexibility… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Tough — 高校鉄拳伝タフ/タフ (Koko Tekken den Tough/Tough) Genre action, comédie, arts martiaux, sport Manga : Koko Tekken den Tough Type Seinen Auteur Tetsuya Saruwatari …   Wikipédia en Français

  • tough — [tuf] adj. [ME < OE toh, akin to Ger zäh, tough, viscous, prob. < IE base * denk , to bite > TONGS] 1. strong but pliant; that will bend, twist, etc. without tearing or breaking 2. that will not cut or chew easily [tough steak] 3.… …   English World dictionary

  • Tough — may refer to: * Tough (manga), a Japanese manga series by Tetsuya Saruwatari * Tough (song), by country music artist Craig Morgan * Tough (Kurtis Blow album), a 1982 album by Kurtis Blow * Tough (Wishbone Ash album), a 2008 album by Wishbone Ash… …   Wikipedia

  • tough — 〈[ tʌ̣f] Adj.; umg.〉 hart, streng, tüchtig, selbstsicher, bestimmt ● die Verhandlungen waren sehr tough; ihr Auftreten ist tough [engl., „hart, zäh“] * * * tough [taf ; engl. tough, verw. mit ↑ zäh], taff [jidd. toff < hebr. tôv = gut] <Adj …   Universal-Lexikon

  • tough — tough; tough·en; tough·ie; tough·ish; tough·ly; tough·ness; …   English syllables

  • tough — [adj1] sturdy, strong brawny, cohesive, conditioned, dense, durable, fibrous, firm, fit, flinty, hard, hard as nails*, hard bitten*, hardened, hardy, healthy, indigestible, inflexible, leathery, lusty, mighty, molded, resilient, resistant, rigid …   New thesaurus

  • tough´en|er — tough|en «TUHF uhn», transitive verb. to make tough or tougher: »He toughened his muscles by doing exercises. –v.i. to become tough or tougher: »His muscles finally toughened. –tough´en|er, noun …   Useful english dictionary

  • tough|en — «TUHF uhn», transitive verb. to make tough or tougher: »He toughened his muscles by doing exercises. –v.i. to become tough or tougher: »His muscles finally toughened. –tough´en|er, noun …   Useful english dictionary

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